There are eleven (11) Local Governments in Ibadan Metropolitan area consisting of five urban local governments in the city and six semi-urban local governments in the less city. Local governments at present are institutions created by the military governments but recognised by the 1999 constitution and they are the third tiers of government in Nigeria. Local governments Councils consist of the Executive Arm made up of the Executive Chairman, the Vice chairman, the Secretary and the Supervisory Councilors.
Local government areas
Ibadan Urban — LGA Chairman
- Ibadan North — Adebayo Adegoke
- Ibadan North-East — Lekan Afuye
- Ibadan North-West — Mojeed Bosun Ajuwon
- Ibadan South-East — Abimbola Omiyale
- Ibadan South-West — Adeleke Taoreed Bolaji
Ibadan Semi-Urban — Chairman
- Akinyele — Mukaila Abiola Ambali
- Egbeda — Akeem Akintunde
- Ido — Wahab Oladejo
- Lagelu — Oyesanmi Toriola
- Ona Ara — Ogundele Biliaminu
- Oluyole —Chairman: Ayodeji Abass Aleshinloye
Iwo Road1, Ibadan, Oyo State
Iwo Road, Ibadan, Oyo State
Local Council Development Areas
The former Executive Governor of Oyo State, Senator Isiaka Abiola Ajimobi, created some Local Council Development Areas (LCDAs) out of some of the existing local government areas in Oyo State. From the Ibadan Urban Local Government areas, the following LCDAs were created.
Out of Ibadan North Local Government area, Aare Latosa LCDA and Irepodun LCDA were created.
Out of Ibadan North East Local Government area, Ibadan East LCDA was created.
Out of Ibadan North West Local Government area, Oke’Badan North LCDA was created.
Out of Ibadan South East Local Government area, Ibadan South LCDA was created.
Out of Ibadan South West Local Government area, Ibadan West LCDA was created.
From the Ibadan Semi-urban Local Government areas, the following LCDAs were created.
Out of Akinyele Local Government area, Akinyele South LCDA and Akinyele East LCDA were created.
- Summing the of Ibadan using:
- Wells, John C. (2008). Longman Pronunciation Dictionary (3rd ed.). Longman. ISBN 978-1-4058-8118-0.
- Toyin Falola, Ann Genova, Matthew M. Heaton, Historical Dictionary of Nigeria, Rowman & Littlefield, USA, 2018, p. 189
- ^ Lyold, P.C; et al. (1967). The City of Ibadan. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-11217-8.
Areola, O. «The Spatial Growth of Ibadan City and its impact on the rural Hinterland» in M.O. Filani, F.O. Akintola and C.O. Ikporukpo edited Ibadan Region, Rex
Charles Publication, Ibadan, 1994 page 99.
- Onibokun, P. and Faniran A., Urban research in Nigeria. IFRA and CASSAD, Ibadan, 1995
- J. Gordon Melton, Martin Baumann, ‘‘Religions of the World: A Comprehensive Encyclopedia of Beliefs and Practices’’, ABC-CLIO, USA, 2010, p. 2107
‘On Education’ — Page 69; ‘Seventeen Years in the Yoruba Country: Memorials of Anna Hinderer (wife of the Rev. David Hinderer, C.M.S. Missionary in Western Africa).
Ibadan is the capital city of Oyo State, the fourth largest state economy in Nigeria, and the second largest non-oil state economy in Nigeria after Lagos state. With its strategic location on the railway line connecting Lagos to Kano, the city is a major center for trade in cassava, cocoa, cotton, timber, rubber, and palm oil. The city and its environs is home to several industries such as Agro allied, Textile, Food processing, Health Care and Cosmetic, Tobacco processing and Cigarette manufacturing, Leatherworks and furniture making Etc. There is abundance of clay, kaolin and aquamarine in the city environs, and there are several cattle ranches, a dairy farm as well as a commercial abattoir in Ibadan. There are dozens of banks and Insurance firms spread out across the cityscape that service the city’s millions of inhabitants.
The main economic activities engaged in by the Ibadan populace include Agriculture, Trade, Public service employment, Factory work, Service sector/Tertiary production, Etc. The headquarters of the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) have extensive grounds for crop and agricultural research into key tropical crops such as bananas, plantains, maize, cassava, soybean, cowpea and yam. According to a report, Ibadan is the 3rd cheapest Nigerian city to live in.
Пьедестал был построен в 1950 году по проекту архитектора Рафаела Исраеляна. Первоначально на нём был установлен памятник Сталину (скульптор Сергей Меркуров). Массивный пьедестал со ступенчатым завершением выполнен из гранита, использованы мотивы национального орнамента — резьбы по камню. Он изначально предназначался для музея Великой Отечественной войны. Внутри расположились три этажа помещений с большими залами. Снаружи постамент отделан чёрным армянским туфом нижняя площадка и ступени базальтовые. На лицевой стороне барельеф в виде ордена «Победа». В 1962 году скульптура Сталина была демонтирована.
В 1967 году на пустующем пьедестале была установлена 22-метровая статуя «Мать Армения» работы скульптора Ары Арутюняна. Официальной церемонии открытия не было. Скульптору удалось установить связь новой скульптуры со старым пьедесталом как в композиции, так и в декоративных деталях. Найти баланс между размерами старого и нового памятника ему помогли сохранившиеся фрагменты скульптуры Сталина (глаз и ботинок).
Скульптура выполнена в чеканной меди, символизирует могущество и величие Родины. Представляет собой образ матери, вкладывающей меч в ножны. У ног матери лежит щит. На лбу у неё «родинка», покрытая тонкими листами золота. Скульптура характерна стилизованной формой рук, строгими чертами одежды. Критики отмечали, что использовав хорошо известный мотив воительницы с мечом, скульптор не привнёс в него ничего принципиально нового.
Прообразом «Матери Армении» стала 17-летняя девушка Евгения Мурадян. Ара Арутюнян встретил её в магазине и уговорил позировать для скульптуры. Сам скульптор вспоминал, что он также запечатлел в памятнике образ своей жены. Существует легенда, что щит в основании скульптуры скрывает ноги Сталина, однако это не соответствует действительности.
В 1970 году в основании памятника был открыт музей Великой Отечественной войны. В 1995 году он был переименован в военный музей «Мать Армения», и с того времени находится в ведении министерства обороны Армении. В музее два основных раздела, посвящённые Великой Отечественной и Карабахской войнам. Раздел о Великой Отечественной войне рассказывает об участии в ней армянского народа. Представлены личные вещи, оружие, документы и портреты героев. Вокруг пьедестала выставлены образцы вооружения того времени. Среди них бронированная машина пехоты, бронемашина-152, танк Т-34, самолет МиГ-19, Катюша БМ-13, зенитный пулемет 76 мм, зенитно-ракетный комплекс С-75.
The best method to move about the city is to use reference points and notable landmarks.
Front view of Mapo Hall, Ibadan
Dugbe district is the commercial nerve centre of Ibadan. This is where many banks have one or more branches. The south west regional office of the Central Bank of Nigeria is at Dugbe. Also at Dugbe is the Cocoa House,Nigeria’s first skyscraper.
Cocoa House, Ibadan
It is one of the few skyscrapers in the city and is at the hub of Ibadan’s commercial centre. Cocoa house is the headquarters for the Oodua Investment Company co-own by all south-western states. Other tall buildings around Dugbe axis include Femi Johnson glass house, CBN building, United Bank for Africa, Oxford building, Federal Radio Corporation of Nigeria’s Building, among others.
There is a museum in the building of the Institute of African Studies, which exhibits several remarkable pre-historic bronze carvings and statues. The city has several well stocked libraries, and is home to the first television station in Africa. The city has two zoological gardens, one located within the University of Ibadan and another at Agodi Gardens which also contains a botanical garden, swimming pool and leisure spots.
Bower Memorial Tower
There are some good golf courses: the Ibadan Golf Club is a large 18-hole challenge and the Barracks course has just been extended to 18 holes. The most challenging and exclusive is the 9-hole IITA Golf Club based on the 1,000 hectare premises of IITA.
Ibadan is located in south-western Nigeria in the southeastern part of Oyo State at about 119 kilometres (74 miles) northeast of Lagos and 120 kilometres (75 miles) east of the Nigerian international border with the Republic of Benin. It lies completely within the tropical forest zone but close to the boundary between the forest and the derived savanna. The city ranges in elevation from 150 m in the valley area, to 275 m above sea level on the major north-south ridge which crosses the central part of the city. The city covers a total area of 3,080 square kilometres (1,190 sq mi), the largest in Nigeria.
The city of Ibadan is naturally drained by four rivers with many tributaries: Ona River in the North and West; Ogbere River towards the East; Ogunpa River flowing through the city and Kudeti River in the Central part of the metropolis. Ogunpa River, a third-order stream with a channel length of 12.76 km and a catchment area of 54.92 km2. Lake Eleyele is located at the northwestern part of the city, while the Osun River and the Asejire Lake bounds the city to the east.
Ibadan has a tropical wet and dry climate (Köppen climate classification Aw), with a lengthy wet season and relatively constant temperatures throughout the course of the year. Ibadan’s wet season runs from March through October, though August sees somewhat of a lull in precipitation. This lull nearly divides the wet season into two different wet seasons. November to February forms the city’s dry season, during which Ibadan experiences the typical West African harmattan. The mean total rainfall for Ibadan is 1420.06 mm, falling in
approximately 109 days. There are two peaks for rainfall, June and September. The mean maximum temperature is 26.46 C, minimum 21.42 C and the relative humidity is 74.55%.
|Climate data for Ibadan|
|Record high °C (°F)||37.2(99.0)||38.9(102.0)||38.3(100.9)||37.2(99.0)||35.0(95.0)||33.3(91.9)||31.7(89.1)||31.7(89.1)||35.6(96.1)||33.3(91.9)||33.9(93.0)||35.6(96.1)||38.9(102.0)|
|Average high °C (°F)||32.3(90.1)||34.0(93.2)||33.5(92.3)||32.3(90.1)||31.2(88.2)||29.6(85.3)||27.8(82.0)||27.2(81.0)||28.5(83.3)||29.7(85.5)||31.3(88.3)||31.9(89.4)||30.8(87.4)|
|Daily mean °C (°F)||25.7(78.3)||26.9(80.4)||26.9(80.4)||26.3(79.3)||25.6(78.1)||25.1(77.2)||23.6(74.5)||23.1(73.6)||23.9(75.0)||24.3(75.7)||25.6(78.1)||25.5(77.9)||25.2(77.4)|
|Average low °C (°F)||20.9(69.6)||21.9(71.4)||22.5(72.5)||22.0(71.6)||21.7(71.1)||21.6(70.9)||21.2(70.2)||20.7(69.3)||21.8(71.2)||21.7(71.1)||21.6(70.9)||20.7(69.3)||21.5(70.7)|
|Record low °C (°F)||10.0(50.0)||11.1(52.0)||15.0(59.0)||18.3(64.9)||17.8(64.0)||17.8(64.0)||16.1(61.0)||15.6(60.1)||17.2(63.0)||17.8(64.0)||15.6(60.1)||11.1(52.0)||10.0(50.0)|
|Average rainfall mm (inches)||10(0.4)||25(1.0)||91(3.6)||135(5.3)||152(6.0)||188(7.4)||155(6.1)||86(3.4)||175(6.9)||160(6.3)||46(1.8)||10(0.4)||1,233(48.5)|
|Average rainy days (≥ 0.3 mm)||1||3||7||9||14||17||15||13||18||18||7||1||123|
|Average relative humidity (%)||76||73||77||82||85||87||89||88||88||87||83||79||83|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||198.4||197.8||186.0||180.0||195.3||147.0||86.8||65.1||93.0||164.3||207.0||220.1||1,940.8|
|Mean daily sunshine hours||6.4||7.0||6.0||6.0||6.3||4.9||2.8||2.1||3.1||5.3||6.9||7.1||5.3|
|Source: Deutscher Wetterdienst|
The city of Ibadan is a major Nigerian transport hub with freeways linking it with Lagos in the South South West, Ijebu Ode and Shagamu in the South, Abeokuta in the West, Oyo, ogbomosho, Offa and Ilorin in the North, Ife, Ado Ekiti, Osogbo, Ilesha, Akure, Okene, Auchi and other cities towards the East. The city is also served by an airport, the Ibadan Airport, which operates daily flights to Abuja, Lagos, Kano, Ilorin etc. through major airlines in Nigeria such as Overland Airways and Arik Air. The city is a major terminus railway station on the main railway line linking Lagos with Kano in the North of the country. Nearly all the major roads are dualized (Double carriage roads), such roads include the Ojoo-Sango-Mokola road that passes in front of the University of Ibadan, others include Ring road-Orita-Challenge-New Garage ways and the recently completed Dugbe-Eleyele-Jerico Road. There are various roundabouts, intersections and flyovers within the city, the latest being the Mokola flyover built to reduce persistent traffic gridlock being experienced in the Mokola axis of the city.
Modes of transport include, cabs & taxis, taxi-vans commonly called Danfos, and in more recent times mass transit buses have commenced operations to reduce the hardship of students and workers commuting from various suburban areas to the city center, private/personal/family cars, scooters commonly known as Okadas, Coach (bus) services, more commonly known locally as «luxurious busses» such as Alakowe Bus, ABC Transport, Cross Country ltd Etc., which operate To and Fro services linking Ibadan and all other major destinations in the country and beyond, as well as pedestrian walking.
The city host the first T.V station in Africa NTA, Ibadan established as western Nigeria Television (WNTV) in 1959. The oldest surviving Nigeria newspaper is in Ibadan Tribune founded by chief Obafemi Awolowo premier of western Nigeria. The first private TV station Galaxy tv in Oyo State also started in the city. As at 2014 the city is home to several media outlets including
NTA Ibadan Network Centre
- B.C.O.S Broadcasting Corporation of Oyo State which also runs the radio services of B.C.O.S radio 1, Oluyole fm 98.5)
- MITV, Ibadan
- Silverbird TV
- Channels tv
- AIT Africa Independent Television
Satellite channels are provided by
- Multichoice Africa owner of DStv and GOTV satellite company has an office in the Jericho area of the city providing subscribers with numerous international and local TV and radio.
- Star times
The radio stations in Ibadan are increasing in number compared to 5–10 years ago, when only 3 operated.
Today, there are:
- B.C.O.S Radio 1 and Oluyole FM 98.5
- Premier FM 93.5 (Federal Government Owned)
- Amuludun FM 99.1(Yoruba only, Federal Government Owned)
- Beat FM 97.9
- Mitv/Star FM 95.1
- Raypower Radio of AIT
- Diamond FM 101.1 of University of Ibadan
- Impact Business Radio (IBR 92.5 FM) a.k.a. Amutajero
- Splash FM 105.5
- Inspiration FM 100.5
- Space FM 90.10
- Naija FM 102.7
- Royal Roots (R2)FM 92.9
- Petals FM 102.3
- Lagelu FM 96.3
- Fresh FM 105.9
- Star FM 91.5
- Jamz FM 101.1
- Thirty-Two FM 94.9
- Noble 107.1 FM
There are also online communities of Ibadan residents such as CONNECTIBADAN, Ibadan247, IBpulse and WhatsupIbadan. They help the public connect with news, event and people in Ibadan and Oyo State as a whole.
Entertainment and media
Ibadan is a busy city but also accommodates an adequate amount of entertainment and relaxation. There are numerous bars, lounges and night clubs to enjoy, including the Lebanese owned «KOKO Dome» which is the oldest night club in the city dating back to the mid 90s. These are the clubs you get the nightlife, unwind moments, ladies nites, dancing, sashaying, strippers, splurging on drinks and more. Clubs: GQ Lounge Old Bodija, Ebevande Ring Road, Club Switch Ring Road, Clique 69 Ring Road KokoDome Cocoa House, Dugbe, Options 24/7 (Formerly known as Yepaa)- Ikolaba, Agodi GRA, Olympus X Apata, Apollos Palms Mall Ring Road, Infinities Ring Road.
The hotels also ranging in class and styles and according to budgets. Top hotels include Premier Hotel Mokola Hill, Golden Tulip Jericho, Best Western Hotel Iyaganku GRA, TravelHouse Hotel Ring Road, A3 Hotels Samonda, Owu Crown Hotel Monatan Iwo Road, Davies Hotel Bodija, Labod Hotel Bodija, Kakanfo Inn Joyce B Road and Lafia Hotel Apata.
Shopping, Cinema and Parks
The Heritage Mall and Cocoa Mall houses several local and international retail stores. The two malls were built to interlink with each other and located in the same compound as Cocoa House at Dugbe. The 2 malls contain a South African retail shop; Shoprite, Pep Store (kids wears and boutique) several cafés, restaurants, electronic outlets, Mr price, Cash n Carry.
There is also the Palms Mall at Ring Road which houses one of the largest Shoprite store in Nigeria. The Palms Mall also houses the Puma Store, Medplus, Viva Cinema, Ultima Restaurant, Natures Treat Cafe, Apollo’s Lounge & Bar and Club DeRock. There’s another mall which opened not too far from the Central Business District called the Jericho Mall Kudeti Avenue, Onireke GRA. The top cinema chain in Nigeria, Filmhouse has 2 cinemas at the Heritage Mall Dugbe and another of its branch operate at the Ventura Mall, Samonda.
Sports and recreation
There are various sport centres and facilities within the city limits of Ibadan. The Ibadan recreational club established 1902 in the Sabo area of the city is one of the oldest of such clubs in the country. It offers a Swimming pool, Tennis courts, Basketball courts, Snooker, Squash courts, Darts corner, and a relaxation bar. The city is also host to dozens of football academies where soccer talents are groomed. The Agodi Gardens of Oyo State has been completely refurbished to contain a Botanical Garden, Zoo, Swimming pool, Guest house, Bar and Restaurants. In addition, there are the Ibadan Polo Club at Eleyele and the Ibadan Golf Club in the Onireke reservation Area. Various fitness centres can be found around the city, such as: The lora gym centre, Oyo state executive gym, The Ibadan gym, Mocdim health & fitness centre, Etc.
The city has the first standard Nigerian stadium, The Obafemi Awolowo Stadium formerly Liberty Stadium as well as The Lekan Salami Stadium which is the home of 3SC, Shooting stars football club, the team that won Nigeria’s first international trophy, The African Cup Winners’ Cup in 1976 by defeating Tonnerre Yaoundé of Cameroon 4 — 2 on aggregate points.
Public spaces and parks
- Trans Amusement park
- Fun factory
- Agodi Gardens and Leisure Park
- Heritage Mall
- Ibadan recreational park
- Heritage & Cocoa Mall
- The Palms Mall
- Ventura Mall and Indoor park
- foodco supermarket
- The University of Ibadan Zoo
- Game World, Dugbe, Ibadan
|Meal, Inexpensive Restaurant||105.53 руб.|
|Meal for 2 People, Mid-range Restaurant, Three-course||844.26 руб.|
|McMeal at McDonalds (or Equivalent Combo Meal)||253.28 руб.|
|Domestic Beer (0.5 liter draught)||50.66 руб.|
|Imported Beer (0.33 liter bottle)||84.43 руб.|
|Cappuccino (regular)||101.31 руб.|
|Coke/Pepsi (0.33 liter bottle)||19.92 руб.|
|Water (0.33 liter bottle)||11.48 руб.|
|Milk (regular), (1 liter)||122.42 руб.|
|Loaf of Fresh White Bread (500g)||47.84 руб.|
|Rice (white), (1kg)||82.32 руб.|
|Eggs (regular) (12)||78.80 руб.|
|Local Cheese (1kg)||191.37 руб.|
|Chicken Breasts (Boneless, Skinless), (1kg)||236.39 руб.|
|Beef Round (1kg) (or Equivalent Back Leg Red Meat)||211.07 руб.|
|Apples (1kg)||177.30 руб.|
|Banana (1kg)||146.34 руб.|
|Oranges (1kg)||140.71 руб.|
|Tomato (1kg)||109.75 руб.|
|Potato (1kg)||109.75 руб.|
|Onion (1kg)||67.54 руб.|
|Lettuce (1 head)||59.10 руб.|
|Water (1.5 liter bottle)||25.33 руб.|
|Bottle of Wine (Mid-Range)||337.71 руб.|
|Domestic Beer (0.5 liter bottle)||45.03 руб.|
|Imported Beer (0.33 liter bottle)||84.43 руб.|
|Cigarettes 20 Pack (Marlboro)||50.66 руб.|
|One-way Ticket (Local Transport)||16.89 руб.|
|Monthly Pass (Regular Price)||844.26 руб.|
|Taxi Start (Normal Tariff)||75.98 руб.|
|Taxi 1km (Normal Tariff)||16.89 руб.|
|Taxi 1hour Waiting (Normal Tariff)||84.43 руб.|
|Gasoline (1 liter)||24.51 руб.|
|Volkswagen Golf 1.4 90 KW Trendline (Or Equivalent New Car)||1181968.10 руб.|
|Toyota Corolla 1.6l 97kW Comfort (Or Equivalent New Car)||1653287.06 руб.|
|Basic (Electricity, Heating, Cooling, Water, Garbage) for 85m2 Apartment||844.26 руб.|
|1 min. of Prepaid Mobile Tariff Local (No Discounts or Plans)||3.80 руб.|
|Internet (60 Mbps or More, Unlimited Data, Cable/ADSL)||1941.80 руб.|
|Sports And Leisure|
|Fitness Club, Monthly Fee for 1 Adult||2701.64 руб.|
|Tennis Court Rent (1 Hour on Weekend)||84.43 руб.|
|Cinema, International Release, 1 Seat||253.28 руб.|
|Preschool (or Kindergarten), Full Day, Private, Monthly for 1 Child||6005.27 руб.|
|International Primary School, Yearly for 1 Child||37147.57 руб.|
|Clothing And Shoes|
|1 Pair of Jeans (Levis 501 Or Similar)||562.84 руб.|
|1 Summer Dress in a Chain Store (Zara, H&M, …)||1408.23 руб.|
|1 Pair of Nike Running Shoes (Mid-Range)||2532.79 руб.|
|1 Pair of Men Leather Business Shoes||2363.94 руб.|
|Rent Per Month|
|Apartment (1 bedroom) in City Centre||20262.31 руб.|
|Apartment (1 bedroom) Outside of Centre||11819.68 руб.|
|Apartment (3 bedrooms) in City Centre||50655.78 руб.|
|Apartment (3 bedrooms) Outside of Centre||30956.31 руб.|
|Buy Apartment Price|
|Price per Square Meter to Buy Apartment in City Centre||? руб.|
|Price per Square Meter to Buy Apartment Outside of Centre||? руб.|
|Salaries And Financing|
|Average Monthly Net Salary (After Tax)||12917.22 руб.|
|Mortgage Interest Rate in Percentages (%), Yearly, for 20 Years Fixed-Rate||16.33 руб.|
Ibadan, coined from the phrase «Eba Odan», which literally means ‘between the forest and plains’, came into existence in 1829, during a period of turmoil that characterized Yorubaland at the time. It was in this period that many old Yoruba cities such as old Oyo (Oyo ile), Ijaye and Owu disappeared, and newer ones such as Abeokuta, new Oyo (Oyo atiba) and Ibadan sprang up to replace them. According to local historians, Lagelu founded the city, and was initially intended to be a war camp for warriors coming from Oyo, Ife and Ijebu. As a forest site containing several ranges of hills, varying in elevation from 160 to 275 metres, the location of the camp offered strategic defence opportunities. Moreover, its location at the fringe of the forest (from which the city got its name) promoted its emergence as a marketing centre for traders and goods from both the forest and grassland areas.
The church and mission in Ibadan
In 1852 the Church Missionary Society sent David and Anna Hinderer to found a mission. They decided to build the mission and a church in Ibadan when they arrived in 1853.
Ibadan thus had initially begun as a military state and remained so until the last decade of the 19th century. The city-state also succeeded in building a large empire from the 1860s to the 1890s which extended over much of northern and eastern Yorubaland. It was appropriately nicknamed idi Ibon or “gun base”, because of its unique military character.
Unlike other Yoruba cities with traditional kingship institutions however, In Ibadan, the warrior class became the rulers of the city as well as the most important economic group.
Ibadan grew into an impressive and sprawling urban center so much that by the end of 1829, Ibadan dominated the Yorùbá region militarily, politically and economically. The military sanctuary expanded even further when refugees began arriving in large numbers from northern Oyo following raids by Fulani warriors. After losing the northern portion of their region to the marauding Fulanis, many Oyo indigenes retreated deeper into the Ibadan environs. The Fulani Caliphate attempted to expand further into the southern region of modern-day Nigeria, but was decisively defeated by the armies of Ibadan in 1840, which eventually halted their progress. The colonial period reinforced the position of the city in the Yoruba urban network. After a small boom in rubber business (1901-1913), cocoa became the main produce of the region and attracted European and Levantine firms, as well as southern and northern traders from Lagos, Ijebu-Ode and Kano among others. The city became a major point of bulk trade. Its central location and accessibility from the capital city of Lagos were major considerations in the choice of Ibadan as the headquarters of the Western Provinces (1939) which ranged from the northernmost areas of Oyo State to Ekeremor, Bomadi and Patani, which were regions transferred from the old Delta province in the Old Western region and later Mid-west to the old Rivers state and later Bayelsa, in the redistricting of Nigeria carried out by the Yakubu Gowon administration shortly before the Nigerian civil war
In 1893, Ibadan area became a British Protectorate after a treaty signed by Fijabi, the Baale of Ibadan with the British acting Governor of Lagos Colony, George C. Denton on 15 August. By then, the population had swelled to 120,000. The British developed the new colony to facilitate their commercial activities in the area, and Ibadan shortly grew into the major trading center that it is today.
Until 1970, Ibadan was the largest city in Sub-Saharan Africa by surface. In 1952, it was estimated that the total area of the city was approximately 103.8 km2 However, only 36.2 km2 was built up. This meant that the remaining 67 km2 were devoted to non-urban uses, such as farmlands, river floodplains, forest reserves and water bodies. These “non-urban land uses” disappeared in the 1960s: an aerial photograph in 1973 revealed that the urban landscape had completely spread over about 100 km2. The land area increased from 136 km2 in 1981 to 210–240 km2 in 1988-89 (Areola, 1994: 101). By the year 2000, it is estimated that Ibadan covered 400 km2. The growth of the built-up area during the second half of the 20th century (from 40 km2 in the 1950s to 250 km2 in the 1990s) shows clearly that there has been an underestimate of the total growth of the city. In the 1980s, the Ibadan-Lagos expressway generated the greatest urban sprawl (east and north of the city), followed by the Eleiyele expressway (west of the city). Since then, Ibadan city has spread further into the neighbouring local government areas of Akinyele and Egbeda in particular.
University of Ibadan
Ibadan is host to Nigeria’s premier higher institution of learning, The University of Ibadan. Established as a college of the University of London in 1948, and later converted into an autonomous university in 1962, it has the distinction of being one of the premier educational institutions in Africa. Other higher educational institutions in the city include; The Polytechnic, Ibadan, Lead City University,Koladaisi University, Federal college of Animal health and Production Technology, Federal College of Forestry, Highland College of Technology, Samonda,Federal School of Statistics, Federal Cooperative College, Tower Polytechnic, Ibadan, Ibadan City Polytechnic, Citigate Polytechnic, NIIT University among others.
There are also numerous public and private primary and secondary schools located in the city and its suburbs. Other noteworthy institutions in the city include The University College Hospital, Ibadan (UCH), which is the first teaching hospital in Nigeria; the internationally acclaimed International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) headquartered in the city. Established in 1967, it focuses on the agricultural and developmental needs of tropical countries, with several research stations spread across Africa. The Nigerian Institute of Social and Economic Research (NISER), The Cocoa Research Institute of Nigeria, The National Root Crops Research Institute, and The Institute of Agricultural Research and Training (IAR&T), The Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria, The Nigerian Horticultural Research Institute (NIHORT), all under the auspices of The Agricultural Research Council of Nigeria.
Before the dissolution of the Western Region, Nigeria, Ibadan and its environs were the home of the most sophisticated and liberal scientific and cultural community on the continent of Africa, as personified by the immortalized Ibadan School of historiography.
In 1853, the first Europeans to settle in Ibadan, Reverend David and Anna Hinderer, started Ibadan’s first Western schools. They built churches and Anna taught at the new school. They built the first two-storey building in Ibadan, which can still be found today at Kudeti. The first pupils to attend an elementary school in Ibadan were Yejide Olunloyo (female) and Akinyele Olunloyo (male) – the two children of an Ibadan high chief.